GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR (1853–1933), German crystallographer and inventor. Goldschmidt, who was born in Mainz, was appointed teacher at Heidelberg University in 1888, and professor in 1893. Among his publications were Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien (3 vols., 1887–91), a catalog of the forms on the crystals of minerals, and Krystallographische Winkeltabellen (1897), a collection of tables of angles in crystal formation. His chief work, however, was his Atlas der Krystallformen (1913–23), a compilation of all published figures of crystals of minerals, in nine volumes. His researches into number series appearing in crystal symbols resulted in his formulation of a theory of number and harmony involving a consideration of musical and color harmonies. Goldschmidt was the inventor of the bicircular goniometer, used in measuring angles. He was baptized. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Milch, in: Festschrift Victor Goldschmidt (1928), includes bibliography; C. Palache, in: American Mineralogist, 19 (1934), 106–11 (includes bibliography); L.J. Spencer, in: Mineralogical Magazine, 24 (1936), 287–9; Neue Deutsche Biographie, 6 (1964). GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR MORITZ (1888–1947), Norwegian mineralogist, crystallographer, and geochemist. Goldschmidt was born in Zurich, son of Heinrich Jacob Goldschmidt (1857–1937) who became professor of chemistry at Oslo University in 1901. In 1914 Victor Goldschmidt was appointed professor of crystallography, mineralogy, and petrography at Oslo University. In 1929 he was appointed director of the mineralogical-petrographical institute at Goettingen, but in 1935 left Nazi Germany to return to Oslo. He was chairman of the Norwegian Friends of the Hebrew University in 1937. After the invasion of Norway in 1940, Goldschmidt was hunted by the Nazis and was arrested on several occasions. The underground succeeded in smuggling him to Sweden in December 1942 and from there he was flown to England, where he devoted himself to work connected with atomic energy. He returned to Oslo in 1946. Goldschmidt was one of the great mineralogists and crystallographers of his generation and is recognized as the founder of the new science of geochemistry. Already in his doctoral thesis in 1911 on the "Phenomena of Metamorphosis" he established a basis for classifying the metamorphic minerals according to general physico-chemical laws, proposed the concept of "stability limits" of minerals, and developed the idea of mineral facies that became the central idea in mineralogy-petrography. Later he developed the notion of type relationships of rocks and laid the foundations of genetic classification of magnetic rocks. Besides these main fields of work, he also explained the distribution of chemical elements in the earth's crust and defined the laws of distribution that result from the natural factors in elements themselves. Goldschmidt was also interested in problems of practical research including the formation of mineral pigments, the production of aluminum from silicates, the use of biotite as a fertilizer, and the use of olivine as a raw material for the production of materials resistant to chemical and heat reactions. Goldschmidt's main works were Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet (1911); Geologisch-petrographische Studien… (5 vols. 1912–21); Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze der Elemente (9 parts, 1923–38). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Oftedal, in: Geological Society of America, Proceedings 1947 (1948), 149–54, includes bibliography; C.E. Tilley, in: Royal Society of London, Obituary Notices…, 17 (1948), 51–66; Norwegian Academy of Science, Årbok 1947 (1948), 85–102. (Yakov K. Bentor)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz — born Jan. 27, 1888, Zürich, Switz. died March 20, 1947, Oslo, Nor. Swiss born Norwegian mineralogist and petrologist. He became director of the Mineralogical Institute of the University of Kristiania (now Oslo) in 1914. The dearth of raw… …   Universalium

  • Goldschmidt , Victor Moritz — (1888–1947) Swiss–Norwegian chemist Goldschmidt, the son of H.J. Goldschmidt, a physical chemist, was born at Zurich in Switzerland. He attended Christiania (now Oslo) University where he obtained his PhD in 1911, remaining in Norway as director… …   Scientists

  • Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz — (27 ene. 1888, Zurich, Suiza–20 mar. 1947, Oslo, Noruega). Mineralogista y petrologista noruego nacido en Suiza. Llegó a ser director del Instituto mineralógico de la Universidad de Cristianía (ahora Oslo) en 1914. La escasez de materias primas… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Goldschmidt, Victor Mordechai — ▪ German crystallographer born Feb. 10, 1853, Mainz, Hesse died May 8, 1933, Salzburg, Austria       German mineralogist who made important studies of crystallography. His first major publication, Index der Kristallformen (3 vol., 1886–91; “Index …   Universalium

  • Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz — (1888 1947)    Norwegian mineralogist. Born in Zurich, he studied at Heidelberg and at the University of Christiania. He was an instructor at the University of Christiania, and became a professor at the Mineralogical Institute. Later he taught at …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Victor Moritz Goldschmidt — Victor Goldschmidt (chimiste) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Victor Goldschmidt et Goldschmidt. Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (né le 27 janvier 1888 à Zurich, mort le 20 mars 1947 à Oslo) est un chimiste considéré comme le co fondateur avec… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Victor goldschmidt (chimiste) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Victor Goldschmidt et Goldschmidt. Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (né le 27 janvier 1888 à Zurich, mort le 20 mars 1947 à Oslo) est un chimiste considéré comme le co fondateur avec Vladimir Vernadski de la géochimie… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Victor Goldschmidt — Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888 ndash; March 20, 1947 in Oslo) was a mineralogist considered (together with Vladimir Vernadsky) to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt… …   Wikipedia

  • Victor goldschmidt (philosophe) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Victor Goldschmidt et Goldschmidt. Victor Goldschmidt (1914 1981) était un philosophe français. Il se fit remarquer par l usage de la méthode structurale en philosophie, à la suite de Martial Gueroult. Cette… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • GOLDSCHMIDT (V. M.) — GOLDSCHMIDT VICTOR MORITZ (1888 1947) Minéralogiste et pétrologue norvégien, né à Zurich, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt a jeté les bases de la cristallochimie minérale et créé la géochimie moderne. Sa première publication, maintenant classique, Die… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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